Introducing the external
link model for studying spine
fixation and misalignment:
Part II - biomechanical features.
AUTHORS: Charles Henderson, D.C.;
Gregory D. Cramer, D.C.; Qi Zhang, Ph.D.;
James DeVocht, D.C.; Jason Fournier, D.C.
The purpose of this study was to characterize intervertebral stiffness
and alignment changes in the external link model. A testretest
design was used to evaluate rats with spine segments
linked in three alignment configurations and controls that were
never linked. Spine stiffness was measured with a load platform,
and flexion/extension misalignment was assessed on lateral radiographs
obtained with a spine extension jig. Rats tested with
links in place had significantly higher dorsal-to-ventral stiffness
in the neutral configuration than rats in the flexed configuration.
This difference remained after the links were removed.
Stiffness after link removal was greater for longer linked periods.
Surprisingly, stiffness after link removal was also greater with
longer unlinked periods. Longer linked periods produced great
misalignments during forced spine extension testing. Although
link configuration was not a predictor of misalignments, longer
times after link removal did produce greater misalignments.
This study suggests that the external link model can be a valuable
tool for studying the effects of spine fixation and misalignment,
two cardinal features of what has been historically
described as the chiropractic subluxation. Significant residual
stiffness and misalignment remained after the links were
removed. The progressive course of this lesion is consistent
with subluxation theory and clinical chiropractic experience.
A survey of chiropractors
practicing in Germany: practice
reading habits, and attitudes and
perceptions toward research.
AUTHORS: Ilke Schwarz, D.C., M.S.; Maria Hondras, D.C.
In 2004, a survey conducted by the European Chiropractor’s
Union reported that “there appears to be little interest in
research among chiropractors in Germany.” However, no
research has tested this statement. The objective of this study
was to explore the attitudes and perceptions of practicing
chiropractors in Germany regarding research, to look at their
reading and research habits, and to gather demographic and
practice data. A questionnaire was developed and distributed
among participants at a seminar held by the German
Chiropractors’ Association in 2005. A total of 49 (72%) of
68 distributed questionnaires were returned. Forty-five (92%)
respondents stated they would support research efforts in
Germany and 15 (31%) declared interest in participating in
practiced based research. An average of three hours per week
were spent reading scientific literature by 44 (85%) respondents.
However, few journals listed by respondents were
peer-reviewed and indexed. Most participants agreed on the
importance of research for the profession, but when asked
about the most pressing issue for chiropractic in Germany,
legislation and recognition of the profession were the dominant
themes. The results of this survey show that there is a general
interest in supporting and participating in research activities
among chiropractors practicing in Germany. Next steps could
consist of educating practitioners about the resources available
to read and interpret the scientific literature and thus further
the understanding of research.
Established in 1995, the Palmer Center for
Chiropractic Research is situated in the
William and Jo Harris Building on Palmer’s