Reticulospinal pathways in
the ventrolateral funiculus with
terminations in the cervical
and lumbar enlargements of
the adult rat spinal cord.
AUTHORS: William Reed, D.C., Ph.D., Davenport ’93,
(PCCR); Alice Shum-Siu; and David S. Magnuson, Ph.D.
The late Dr. Harris at the dedication of the
William and Jo Harris Building which houses
the Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research
on the Davenport Campus.
Identification and understanding the role different kinds of
neurons and neuronal pathways have on postural control is
one way basic science research can impact clinical practice.
In the mammalian spinal cord, the anterior-lateral quadrant
of the spinal cord has been identified as critical to postural
control and locomotor function. The primary purpose of this
study was to investigate the distribution of neurons in the
brainstem labeled by discretely injecting a blue neuronal tracer
(Fluoro-Gold; FG) into the right thoracic (T9) spinal cord
and a red neuronal tracer (Fluoro-Ruby; FR) into the gray
matter of the lumbar (L2) or cervical (C5/6, C7/8) spinal
cord segments in the rat. Both of these neuronal tracers travel
backwards from their injection site to label the neuronal cell
body. Double-labeled (blue + red = pink) brainstem neurons
were found primarily in the medial portion of the brainstem
(the gigantocellular nuclei) bilaterally. This indicates populations
of ipsilateral (same-side) and commissural (cross-over)
long descending neurons. Two different populations of commissural
neurons are described, one with axons that cross the
midline rostral to T9, and one with axons that cross the midline
caudal to T9. These observations provide additional evidence
for a pattern of long descending brainstem projections
that include substantial numbers of neurons that cross the
midline of the spinal cord at multiple cervical and thoracolumbar
The full article of this abstract was published in Neuroscience,
2008 Jan. 24, Volume 151, Number 2, pages 505-517.
Recruitment and enrollment
for the simultaneous conduct
of 2 randomized controlled trials
for patients with subacute and
chronic low back pain at a
CAM Research Center
AUTHORS: Maria Hondras, D.C.; Cynthia Long, Ph.D.;
Andrea Haan, D.C., M.S.; Lori Byrd-Spencer; William
Meeker, D.C., West ’82; (all of whom work at Palmer
College of Chiropractic.)
Recruiting participants for randomized controlled trials is a
challenge common to many areas of study. Many factors must
be considered when developing the recruitment strategy for a
trial. This manuscript describes the recruitment and enrollment
experiences of 2 low back pain (LBP) randomized controlled
trials at the Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research.
Both trials enrolled participants with subacute or chronic LBP.
We conducted 3,789 telephone screens for both trials to
enroll 432 (11%) participants, at a cost in excess of $156,000
for recruitment efforts. The cost per call for all callers averaged
$41, ranging from $4 to $300 based on recruitment
method; for enrolled participants, the cost per call was $361,
ranging from $33 to $750. The costs associated with recruitment
efforts for studies conducted at chiropractic institutions
may be higher than expected. Therefore, strategies for efficient
recruitment methods and targeting nonusers of chiropractic
therapies should be developed early for chiropractic trials.
The full article of this abstract was published in Journal of
Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 8,
2008, pages 983-992.